Action Research: Its Foundations in Open Systems Thinking and Relationship to the Scientific Method | John Barton, John Stephens, Tim Haslett

[A hugely valuable paper unearthed by David Ing]
ORIGINAL PAPER
Action Research: Its Foundations in Open Systems Thinking and Relationship to the Scientific Method
John Barton, John Stephens, Tim Haslett
Published online: 22 August 2009
Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009
Abstract
This paper considers those interpretations of action research that can be traced to Kurt Lewin at the Research Center for Group Dynamics at the University of Michigan,and the work in social ecology by Emery and Trist at the Tavistock Institute. It locates the logical basis of these interpretations in the philosophy of pragmatism, particularly as it relates to Peirce’s inferential logic and inquiry system. Drawing on this argument, and on the  significant developments in approaches to systemic thinking over the past 40–50 years,a normative set of criteria is established for action research. The paper concludes that both positivist science (which relates to closed systems thinking) and action research (which relates to open systems thinking) are essential to any complete scientific approach.
Keywords
 Action research, Open systems, Scientific method, Peirce, Pragmatism, Abduction

Full paper in source (academia.edu something-wall):  Action Research: Its Foundations in Open Systems Thinking and Relationship to the Scientific Method | Tim Haslett – Academia.edu