Intransitivity – Wikipedia

Intransitivity From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to navigationJump to search This article is about intransitivity in mathematics. For other uses, see Intransitive (disambiguation). In mathematics, intransitivity (sometimes called nontransitivity) is a property of binary relations that are not transitive relations. This may include any relation that is not transitive, or the stronger property of antitransitivity, which describes a relation that is never transitive.

Intransitivity – Wikipedia

Counterintuitive behavior of social systems | Forrester (1971)

Counterintuitive behavior of social systems

Counterintuitive behavior of social systems | SpringerLink

Counterintuitive behavior of social systems

Theory and Decision volume 2, pages109–140 (1971)


This paper addresses several issues of broad concern in the United States: population trends; the quality of urban life; national policy for urban growth; and the unexpected, ineffective, or detrimental results often generated by government programs in these areas.

The author does attempt to indicate how multiloop feed-back systems (to which our social systems belong) mislead us because our intuition and judgement have been formed to expect behavior different from that actually possessed by such systems. At times programs cause exactly the reverse of desired results.

It is now possible to explain how such contrary results can happen. There are fundamental reasons why people misjudge the behavior of social systems. There are orderly processes at work that frequently lead people to wrong decisions when faced with complex and highly interacting systems. Until we come to a much better understanding of social systems, we should expect that attempts to develop corrective programs will continue to disappoint us.

Stages and Dimensions of Systems Intelligence – Jones and Corner (2011)

Stages and Dimensions of Systems Intelligence

Stages and Dimensions of Systems Intelligence – Jones – 2012 – Systems Research and Behavioral Science – Wiley Online Library

Stages and Dimensions of Systems Intelligence

Rachel JonesJames Corner

First published: 03 June 2011


Following the footsteps of emotional, social, cultural and other types of intelligence, systems intelligence offers a new perspective on how individuals act with a lesser or greater degree of intelligence within physical and social systems. First appearing in the published literature in 2004, systems intelligence has resonated with the related fields of decision making, communication and leadership, among others. However, to date, a taxonomy for considering systems intelligence has yet to be described. Building off Kegan’s framework for human development and Hämäläinen and Saarinen’s recent levels, we offer a new taxonomy of systems intelligence and describe its stages and dimensions. We focus on the three stages of attentive, active and inspired systems intelligence, incorporating three, four and eight dimensions, respectively. This taxonomy serves as a useful conceptualization for the future development of measurement tools for systems intelligence and as a basis for understanding how individuals might transition between stages. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Second order cybernetics – Glanville (2008) in Systems science and cybernetics. Encyclopedia of life support systems

In world of infinite overlapping possibility and multiple, irreconcilable differences, what does #education mean?

Participatory modeling – Wikipedia

Participatory modeling

Participatory modeling – Wikipedia

Participatory modeling is a purposeful learning process for action that engages the implicit and explicit knowledge of stakeholders to create formalized and shared representation(s) of reality. In this process, the participants co-formulate the problem and use modeling practices to aid in the description, solution, and decision-making actions of the group. Participatory modeling is often used in environmental and resource management contexts. It can be described as engaging non-scientists in the scientific process. The participants structure the problem, describe the system, and create a shared understanding of how the system works. This can further lead to more quantitative analyses, and may sometimes result in a computer model of the system, which is then jointly used to test policy interventions, and propose one or more solutions. Participatory modeling is often used in natural resources management,[1] such as forests[2] or water.[3][4]

There are numerous benefits from this type of modeling, including a high degree of ownership and motivation towards change for the people involved in the modeling process. It also helps to develop more acceptable solutions and often creates more consensus among the stakeholders involved.

Wikipedia isn’t great on this – the summary in this paper is better:

Participatory modelling: A review of applications in energy whole-systems
modelling to support decision making – Catherine Bal

Topaasia®: Systems Intelligence -Interview of Esa Saarinen & Raimo Hämäläinen


Topaasia®: Systems Intelligence -Interview of Esa Saarinen & Raimo Hämäläinen

Topaasia: Systems Intelligence – Interview with Esa Saarinen and Raimo Hämäläinen

The Systems Intelligence is the result of the joint research work of the philosopher Esa Saarinen and professor emeritus Raimo Hämäläinen, which has been developed in Aalto University since 2001. The Systems Intelligence combines human sensitivity with the world changing engineering thinking. Topaasia – Systems Intelligence game is based on this research and made in collaboration with Esa and Raimo. We interviewed gentlemen about systems intelligence, applying it to the Topaasia format and how it can benefit organizations playing it.

Systems Intellect is a collection of human competencies

As a human being you are always part of a bigger whole or a system. The System Intelligence is the hallmark of man’s ability to strive for success in the systems, where he lives his life. It is human ability to improve life. People can easily see things in small sections and problems, instead of building a successful whole. Systems Intelligence gives you the tools to think about whether something should be done in a different way?

In the Systems intelligence, the talents already present in the human being is named so that people becomes more aware of them. The Glossary that is used aims to change and stimulate action. It is not a theory which, from the outside, depicts someone’s reality, which can be internalized and transferred to their own activities. Instead, systems intelligence is something that a person himself already does, but can do more or better. It’s a promise to be better at what you’ve been good in already and before. The aim of Systems intelligence is not only to understand the systems, but also to act in them. It aims to launch human growth process.

Areas of The System Intelligence. Source: Esa Saarinen The course Philosophy and systems thinking in Aalto University. Lecture 8 – The philosophy of the whole

Continues in source:

Topaasia®: Systems Intelligence -Interview of Esa Saarinen & Raimo Hämäläinen

Systems intelligence research group, Aalto University

Systems Intelligence
Research Group
Systems Analysis LaboratoryAalto University

Raimo P. Hämäläinen, professor
Esa Saarinen, professor
Test your Systems IntelligenceSuomeksi

Systems Intelligence (SI) is a concept introduced in 2004 by the principal investigators. The research group develops the conceptual basis of this competence and studies its different forms and manifestations in personal and organizational contexts. We seek to distribute knowledge and stimulate interest in Systems Intelligence in different fields including management practices, learning organizations, education, human relationships, etc.

By Systems Intelligence we mean intelligent behaviour in the context of complex systems involving interaction and feedback. A subject acting with systems intelligence engages successfully and productively with the holistic feedback mechanisms of her environment. She perceives herself as part of the whole, the influence of the whole upon herself as well as her own influence upon the whole. Observing her own interdependency with the feedback-intensive environment, she is able to act intelligently.

We have also developed a test for self-evaluation. You can take the SI-test here. If you want to use the SI-test in your own projects you can find related material and instructions here.

How to help organizational SI? – Systems Intelligence serious gaming tool for organizational development

Original introduction of the concept of Systems Intelligence:

» Systems Intelligence: Connecting Engineering Thinking with Human Sensitivity, Esa Saarinen and Raimo P. Hämäläinen 2004. In Systems Intelligence – Discovering a Hidden Competence in Human Action and Organizational Life, Helsinki University of Technology, Systems Analysis Laboratory, Research Reports A88, p 9-37.

Key publications:» Systems Intelligence Inventory, J. Törmänen, R.P. Hämäläinen and E. Saarinen 2016. The Learning Organization, vol 23, issue 4, pp. 218-231. (Slides)
» Systems Intelligence – A Core Competence for Next Generation Engineers?, R.P. Hämäläinen, E. Saarinen and J. Törmänen (2018), Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Teaching, Assessment and Learning for Engineering (TALE), pp. 641-644 (View at publisher) (Slides)

» Being Better Better – Living with Systems Intelligence,
Raimo P. Hämäläinen, Rachel Jones and Esa Saarinen 2014.
Aalto University Publications, CROSSOVER 4/2014.
More information about the book can be found here.

» Modeling Systems of Holding Back as Hypergames and Its Connection with Systems Intelligence, Yasuo Sasaki, Raimo P. Hämäläinen and Esa Saarinen 2015. In Systems Research and Behavioral Science Vol. 32, Issue 6, p 593-602
» Life-Philosophical Lecturing as a Systems-Intelligent Technology of the Self, Esa Saarinen 2015. In Journal of Philosophical Research
» Inducing Mindfulness Through Life-Philosophical Lecturing, Esa Saarinen and Tuuli Lehti 2014. In The Wiley Blackwell Handbook of Mindfulness, p 1105-1131.
» On the importance of behavioral operations research: The case of understanding and communicating about dynamic systems, Raimo P. Hämäläinen, Jukka Luoma and Esa Saarinen 2013. In European Journal of Operational Research, Vol. 228, Issue 3, p 623-634.
» Esa Saarinen and Systems Intelligence, Rachel Jones and Raimo P. Hämäläinen 2013. In Elämän filosofi, p 163-171.
» Elämän filosofi, Frank Martela, Lauri Järvilehto, Peter Kenttä & Jaakko Korhonen (eds.) 2013.
» The Systems Metaphor in Therapy Discourse: Introducing Systems Intelligence, Frank Martela and Esa Saarinen 2013. In Psychoanalytic Dialogues, 23, p 79-100.
» Acting with systems intelligence: Integrating complex responsive processes with the systems perspective, Jukka Luoma, Raimo P. Hämäläinen, and Esa Saarinen 2011. In The Journal of the Operational Research Society, 62, p 3-11
» Stages and Dimensions of Systems Intelligence, Rachel Jones and Jim Corner 2012. In Systems Research and Behavioral Science, Vol. 29, p 30-45.
» The Originality of Systems Intelligence, Esa Saarinen and Raimo P. Hämäläinen 2010. In Essays on Systems Intelligence, p 9-26.
» Philosophy for Managers: Reflections of a Practitioner, Esa Saarinen 2008. In Philosophy of Management, Vol. 7, Supplement 2008 (Reprinted in Systems Intelligence – A New Lens on Human Engagement and Action, 2008)
» Systems intelligence – the way forward? A note on Ackoff’s ‘why few organizations adopt systems thinking’, Raimo P. Hämäläinen and Esa Saarinen 2008. In Systems Research and Behavioral Science, Volume 25, Issue 6, p 821-825.
» Perspectives on team dynamics: Meta learning and systems intelligence, Jukka Luoma, Raimo P. Hämäläinen and Esa Saarinen 2008. In Systems Research and Behavioral Science, Volume 25, Issue 6, p 757-767.
» Philosophy in the 21st Century: Socratic Philosophy That Matters and Engages With People, Esa Saarinen 2008. International Academy of Philosophy, News and Views, no. 20.
» Systems Intelligent Leadership, Raimo P. Hämäläinen and Esa Saarinen 2007. In Systems Intelligence in Leadership and Everyday Life, p 3-38.
» The Way Forward with Systems Intelligence, Raimo P. Hämäläinen and Esa Saarinen 2007. In Systems Intelligence in Leadership and Everyday Life, p 295-305.
» Systems Intelligence: Connecting Engineering Thinking with Human Sensitivity, Esa Saarinen and Raimo P. Hämäläinen 2004. In Systems Intelligence, p 9-37.

Gosh, there are a lot of TED(x) talks introducing complex systems…

The magic of three | van der Merwe (2007)

The magic of three Johann van der Merwe Kybernetes ISSN: 0368-492X Article publication date: 23 October 2007

The magic of three | Emerald Insight

Stewardship of global collective behavior | Bak-Coleman et al (2021)

Stewardship of global collective behavior

Stewardship of global collective behavior | PNAS

Stewardship of global collective behavior

 View ORCID ProfileJoseph B. Bak-Coleman,  View ORCID ProfileMark Alfano,  View ORCID ProfileWolfram Barfuss,  View ORCID ProfileCarl T. Bergstrom, Miguel A. Centeno,  View ORCID ProfileIain D. Couzin, Jonathan F. Donges,  View ORCID ProfileMirta Galesic, Andrew S. Gersick, Jennifer Jacquet,  View ORCID ProfileAlbert B. Kao, Rachel E. Moran,  View ORCID ProfilePawel Romanczuk,  View ORCID ProfileDaniel I. Rubenstein, Kaia J. Tombak, Jay J. Van Bavel, and  View ORCID ProfileElke U. Weber

 See all authors and affiliationsPNAS July 6, 2021 118 (27) e2025764118;

  1. Edited by Bonnie J. McCay, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ, and approved May 17, 2021 (received for review December 14, 2020)


Collective behavior provides a framework for understanding how the actions and properties of groups emerge from the way individuals generate and share information. In humans, information flows were initially shaped by natural selection yet are increasingly structured by emerging communication technologies. Our larger, more complex social networks now transfer high-fidelity information over vast distances at low cost. The digital age and the rise of social media have accelerated changes to our social systems, with poorly understood functional consequences. This gap in our knowledge represents a principal challenge to scientific progress, democracy, and actions to address global crises. We argue that the study of collective behavior must rise to a “crisis discipline” just as medicine, conservation, and climate science have, with a focus on providing actionable insight to policymakers and regulators for the stewardship of social systems.

Iluminate – cultivating the field and practice of systems change
We support the emergence of systems change practice, to advance the wellbeing of people and planet

Community on Mighty Networks

Presentation on Illuminate: cultivating the field and practice of systems change to advance the wellbeing of people and planet

Survey for visualising the field and practice of systems change:

Follow-up from the event SIGNAL: Fostering the Emergence of System Leadership Worldwide session, part of the Skoll 2020 Virtual Forum.

The role of bridging in systems change

Idioticon – Feedback Loops – Triarchy Press

Feedback Loops

Idioticon – Feedback Loops – Triarchy Press

Feedback Loops

How we generate plateaux of intensity and the race to the bottom.

Everyone has a sense of what a feedback loop is. It’s what makes the awful screeching noising on a PA  or other amplified sound system system. Among other things.

Today, feedback effects are often talked about in the context of global warming and we are broadly aware of positive and negative feedback effects: the former tend to amplify small changes or differences, while the latter tend to lessen changes or differences.

See the Systems Partners – a new education initiative

See the Systems Partners

See the Systems Partners


See the Systems Partners

What is the initiative?

See the Systems is a new education initiative aimed at bringing the value of systems action to strengthen communities around the world.

Teams will compete from schools and other associations to map systemic issues within their local communities, design / prototype proposed solutions, and validate / implement their ideas while measuring the resulting qualitative and quantitative impacts.

Participants will partner with experienced mentors, systems practitioners, and subject matter experts from organisations such as the ISSS (International Society for Systems Science), the ORS (Operational Research Society) and INCOSE (International Council for Systems Engineering) while actively sharing their learnings via social media and other platforms.

The prize structure will reward activities sustaining long term positive benefits. Entries will be judged on ingenuity, leverage, people engaged, and quality of evaluation.

Exponential is a mathematical term for a form of compound non-linear growth or decline over time. In this chart, the horizontal X axis is time and the vertical Y axis is an accumulation. The graph illustrates how exponential growth (green) eventually surpasses both linear (red) and cubic (blue) growth. However, at first this is not apparent.

See the Systems aims to empower young people with the tools and agency to make a real difference to their world.

The Ontology of the Enemy: Norbert Wiener and the Cybernetic Vision – Galison (1994)

The Ontology of the Enemy: Norbert Wiener and the Cybernetic Vision

The Ontology of the Enemy: Norbert Wiener and the Cybernetic Vision on JSTOR

(In which, thanks to Angus Jenkinson, I find specific reference to WE Deming’s membership of the Teleological Society)

The Ontology of the Enemy: Norbert Wiener and the Cybernetic Vision

Peter GalisonCritical InquiryVol. 21, No. 1 (Autumn, 1994), pp. 228-266 (39 pages)Published By: The University of Chicago Press