Affordance – Wikipedia and Gibson


Affordance – Wikipedia


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaJump to navigationJump to search“Afford” redirects here. For other meanings, see Afford (disambiguation).

Affordance is what the environment offers the individual. James J. Gibson coined the term in his 1966 book, The Senses Considered as Perceptual Systems,[1] and it occurs in many of his earlier essays (e.g.[2]). However, his best-known definition is taken from his seminal 1979 book, The Ecological Approach to Visual Perception:

The affordances of the environment are what it offers the animal, what it provides or furnishes, either for good or ill. The verb to afford is found in the dictionary, the noun affordance is not. I have made it up. I mean by it something that refers to both the environment and the animal in a way that no existing term does. It implies the complementarity of the animal and the environment.— Gibson (1979, p. 127)[3]

The word is used in a variety of fields: perceptual psychologycognitive psychologyenvironmental psychologyindustrial designhuman–computer interaction (HCI), interaction designuser-centered designcommunication studiesinstructional designscience, technology and society (STS), sports science and artificial intelligence.

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Affordance – Wikipedia


James J. Gibson From: the Ecological Approach to Visual Perception Chapter 8 the Theory of Affordances

James Jerry GibsonPublished 2013I have described the environment as the surfaces that separate substances from the medium in which the animals live. But I have also described what the environment affords animals, mentioning the terrain, shelters, water, fire, objects, tools, other animals, and human displays. How do we go from surfaces to affordances? And if there is information in light for the perception of surfaces, is there information for the perception of what they afford? Perhaps the composition and layout of surfaces constitute what they afford. If so, to perceive them is to perceive what they afford. This is a radical hypothesis, for it implies that the “values” and “meanings” of things in the environment can be directly perceived. Moreover, it would explain the sense in which values and meanings are external to the perceiver.

The Theory of Affordances –

The Perception of the Visual World