Ecology and Society: From Complex Regions to Complex Worlds – Holling (2004)

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 ES HOME > VOL. 9, NO. 1 > ART. 11
Copyright © 2004 by the author(s). Published here under license by The Resilience Alliance.
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The following is the established format for referencing this article:
Holling, C. S. 2004. From complex regions to complex worlds. Ecology and Society 9(1): 11. [online] URL:
PerspectiveFrom Complex Regions to Complex WorldsC. S. Holling
University of Florida
AbstractIntroductionA Brief Summary of DiscoveriesFrom the Science of Change to the Politics of Change in a Complex WorldHow to Respond in a “Big Back Loop”Responses to this ArticleLiterature CitedABSTRACTPanarchy focuses on ecological and social systems that change abruptly. Panarchy is the process by which they grow, adapt, transform, and, in the end, collapse. These stages occur at different scales. The back loop of such changes is a critical time and presents critical opportunities for experiment and learning. It is when uncertainties arise and when resilience is tested and established. We now see changes on a global scale that suggest that we are in such a back loop. This article assesses the possibility of using the ideas that are central to panarchy, developed on a regional scale, to help explain the changes that are being brought about on a global scale by the Internet and by climate, economic, and geopolitical changes.KEY WORDS: adaptive cycles, change, complex systems, panarchy, transformation.Published: March 30, 2004

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