Luhmann and Biology
Niklas Luhmann’s social systems theory is one of the most impressive achievements in the social sciences in the second half of the 20th century. Widely appreciated and mainstream in Germany and across mainland Europe, it remains far less well-known in the Anglo-Saxon world, beyond the realms of systems theorists who knew about Luhmann’s hinterland, cybernetics, Maturana, etc.
Loet Leydesdorff is about to publish a new book detailing the intellectual relationships that Luhmann had with Habermas and the intellectual elite in the 60s and 70s. This history is important because its not just our institutions that are in a mess at the moment, but our disciplines – not least, sociology.
For those who want to critique Luhmann, his dependence first on the biological cybernetics of Maturana and Varela is a cause to claim “biological reductionism”, or his later fascination with Spencer-Brown as a kind of sophistry which doesn’t convince Leydesdorff. It’s remarkable that despite these criticisms, and indeed the criticism by Maturana that Luhmannn had misappropriated his theory, that Luhmann is the only figure from mainstream cybernetics to have had a major transformative impact on a discipline, with important work drawing on it – from Kittler’s media theory (again, pretty much unknown to Anglo-Saxon media departments) to Yuk Hui’s recent and brilliant “Recursivity and Contingency” which is spreading around the world. People reading Hui will learn about Ashby, Maturana, Von Foerster, Simondon, etc from this.
continues in source:Improvisation Blog: Luhmann and Biology