OpinionSpecial Issue: Industrial BiotechnologyThe Best Model of a Cat Is Several Cats
Complexity modeling. Biotechnology engineers living systems that are the product of evolution and can be discretized and organized following different organizational layers, each one with its own mechanisms and contexts. Bioengineering practitioners must be aware of the rich and complex relationships among these levels of complexity.
Reproducibility. Most of biotechnology cannot be reproduced for practical, temporal, and economic reasons. Despite this, designed bioengineered entities must work consistently and robustly when released as products.
Multi-heuristics. Several heuristics are implemented in parallel in modern biotechnology. Each one follows a reasoning procedure that provides possible solutions and logical explanations. They are not contradictory, just useful for pragmatic reasons. The challenge is to build engineering knowledge for a biological field.